General anesthesia and dental sedation in patients with special needs: why, when and how. A clinical guide for dental practitioners


Published: 19 December 2022
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Aim This review aims to provide an overview of the methods of anaesthesia in dentistry, and to frame the patients on whom this practice is needed, in order to provide a clinical guide for practitioners. 

Methods The drafting of the article involved dentists, anaesthetists and pharmacologists to try to address the topic from every possible point of view on a clinical sight. Therefore, the scientific literature and field experience of the writers were taken into account. Not only different methods were explored, but also drugs and their indications and contraindications for patients. Moreover, the importance of a psychologically valid and patient-focused approach was highlighted. Also, a focus on Covid-19 precautions to be implemented before and during dental procedures was carried out.

Results A protocol was set to identify patients who require general anesthesia and clinical guide was developed for clinicians on practice as well as an operational scheme for the treatment of patients with special needs.

Conclusion Multidisciplinary collaboration of healthcare professionals is essential as well as constant update to improve patient well-being, this is the more so when treating special needs patients.


Gallottini, S. G., Giammarini, S., Amato, A., & Gallottini, L. (2022). General anesthesia and dental sedation in patients with special needs: why, when and how. A clinical guide for dental practitioners. Journal of Osseointegration, 15(1), 62–78. https://doi.org/10.23805/JO.2023.15.01.03

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